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Don Juan de Oñate by John Houser


"As to the Spanish stock of our Southwest, it is certain to me that we do not begin to appreciate the splendor and sterling value of its race element. Who knows but that element, like the course of some subterranean river, dripping invisibly for a hundred or two years, is now to emerge in broadest flow and permanent action?"—Walt Whitman
 

OPINION

OPINION PAGE
A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF
NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW Volume 82, Number 3, Summer 2007

Elizabeth Archuleta, History Carved in Stone

MEMORIALIZING PO'PAY AND ONATE, OR RECASTING RACIALIZED REGIMES OF REPRESENTATION?

 
ANTI-HISPANIC PROPAGANDA IN THE NMHR

In reading this article I was disappointed In the University of New Mexico and the New Mexico Historical Review’s Editorial staff for publishing an article that changes the discussion of don Juan de Oñate and Po’pay from a historical discussion to one of race based propaganda.

            The editors must have agreed with the propaganda that equates the English Americans with the Spanish even though the English felt the Indians were sub-human, killed off the Indians like dogs, and forced them off their land, while the Spanish enacted laws to protect the Indians and gave them grants to protect their Pueblos, and the Spanish monarchs granted titles of nobility to certain Indians. This should have been enough to show the intent of this article.

The editors fail to understand that don Juan de Oñate was in New Mexico for about 10 years from 1598 to 1609. He resigned with a remarkable record. Instead of conquest he had negotiated settlement treaties with the Pueblos it included a non-aggression pact where by the settlers and neighboring Pueblos would come to the defense of anyone being attacked. He provided Pueblo land grants guaranteed by the King of Spain to keep them from being displaced, he asked each Pueblo to elect a governor to act as a go between with the Spanish government while keeping their Pueblos self government. Don Juan de Oñate called together a council of all the Pueblos in 1598 for the first time in recorded history, When the Pueblos agreed to learn the Catholic faith, missionaries were sent to each district. When a war was started by the Acoma, which threatened all New Mexicans, all the other Pueblos supported Oñate in restoring peace. While the brutal murders by the Acomas needed to be addressed, the Spanish first asked for peace not once but three times and the colonist-soldiers were told by Oñate not to take vengeance on the Acoma but to safeguarded the women and children.

Gaspar Pérez deVillagrá’s HISTORIA DE LA NUEVA MÉXICO, 1610 Published  by the University of New Mexico Press 1992,

 Oñate left New Mexico with over 150 Pueblos intact. “Whiteness’” has nothing to do with his merits; The New Mexico Culture Preservation League NMHCPL has always sought full discloser of primary source New Mexico history.

  On page 330 the Author should have given credit to Gaspar Pérez deVillagrá’s HISTORIA DE LA NUEVA MÉXICO, 1610 Published  by the University of New Mexico Press 1992, Canto VI, as a primary source for this information.

Carved p.330 Spanish blood Hispanics claim as pure was indigenized centuries earlier by the very man to whom many attach their claims of whiteness. Onate was married to Isabel Tolosa Cortés Montezuma, the great-granddaughter of Montezuma, granddaughter of Cortés, and daugh­ter of Juan de Tolosa-the discoverer of the silver mines of Zacatecas-and Leonor Cortés de Montezuma. That lineage made Onate's descendents mestizos.49

OD The NMHCPL brought this informtion before the Albuquerque city councel to debunk clames that Oñate did not like Indians, and the NMHCPL wants this taught to our children.

OD The NMHCPL also wants our children to know, the Spanish elected Don Juan de Oñate’s son as the first elected New Mexico governor (a mestizo) in 1610. He was latter killed by the Indians.

  Spanish blood Hispanics” This is the first time I have seen this phrase in print. Is it meant to put New Mexicans down or to acknowledge our rich tapestry of Spanish cultures? Before the Spanish left Spain for the New World they were already one of the most culturally diverse of people, after intermarrying with Pacific, Caribbean, North and South American peoples we truly became “Cosmic Culture” and fully Spanish.

  New Mexico’s Hispanics had been Spanish from 1598 to 1821 Over 200 years, and American for less then 160 years. In all this time it has been the Indians who have kept and labeled us Spanish which is what they call us today.

  The doors of the estufas are always closed to us, the Spaniards as they (the Indians) call us. p.29

(1812) Pino THREE NEW MEXICO CHRONICLES Arno Press NY 1967

Carved p. 318 artist, Gutzon Borglum, associated with the newly re-formed Ku Klux Klan of the 1920’s.2

OD It must be remembered Hispanic hangings as well as Black were performed by the Ku Klux Klan.

Carved p. 319 Their racial status re­mained fragile. Anglo Americans continued to regard them as racially infe­rior; that attitude prompted Mexican American elites to distance themselves further from groups they perceived as lower on the racial hierarchy than themselves-Pueblo Indians, blacks, and nomadic/seminomadic Indians. 7

OD The author fails to note that Mexican American elites refers only to a very small number of New Mexican teratorial legislators.

Carved p. 319 Americans racially categorized them as white based on a Spanish American identity fabricated in the early twentieth century.6

  Laura E. Gómez creates (fabricates) a Mexican American race in 1848, and a Chicano race in 1970 based on a socio-econamic not ethnic bassis. L.G. beleaves New Mexico before 1848 was a colony of half-breeds ruled by Spain. This construct does not allow for Spanish American self identification.

  6&7 Laura E. Gómez makes this argument in "Off-White in an Age of White Supremacy: Mexican Elites and the Rights of Indians and Blacks in Nineteenth-Century New Mexico," Chicano-Latino Law Review 25 (spring 2005), 12.

 

Carved p.321 images of Sakakawea or Winnemucca do not ac­knowledge the history of white sexual violence against American Indian women.16 Official histories describe both of these women in the same way as Washakie: translators, bridges between Indians and settlers, and messen­gers of peace.17

 

OD Sakakawea’s inslavement by other Indians is also not widely ac­knowledged.

In 1800, at about the age of 12, a Shoshone girl was captured (enslaved) by the Hidatsa tribe. http://www.aoc.gov/cc/art/nsh/sakakawea.cfm

 

Carved p.323 The grazing of Spanish cattle in the semiarid re­gion led to soil erosion, destruction of Pueblo farmland, and crop failures, all conditions that did not exist prior to Spanish settlement.21

 

OD Why didn’t the editors find this statement ludicrous?  This statement ignores centuries of buffalo grazing from the Rocky Mountains to the Florida shores.

 

“these animals (buffalo) come from the north and travel through the land as far as the coast of Florida and range over the landscape for more than four hundred leagues,”

(CASTAWAYS edited by Enrique Pupo-Walker University of California Press, Berkeley)

 

“in the twenty leagues they had traveled—“they saw nothing but cattle (buffalo) and sky.”” (Coronado Knight of the Pueblos and Plains Bolton University of New Mexico Press)

 

 The total number of animals in New Mexico (all types of domestic stock) in 1829 was 3,ooo (Pino THREE NEW MEXICO CHRONICLES Arno Press NY 1967)

 

From the  time of the agricultural COCHISE Indians 10,000-500 BC to the arival of the Spanish colonists 1589 AD the Indians have let the erosion by the Rio Grande river go unchecked making the Indians the cause of the Rio Grande Gorge, where as the cannel system of the Spanish reduced erosion fertilized the fields and increased the amount of land that could be planted. One fanega of seed grain could produce 130 fanegas of wheat. (Benivedas Memorial 1630)

 

Carved p. 319 Americans racially categorized them as white based on a Spanish American identity fabricated in the early twentieth century.6

OD When my grandmother, who’s father who was almost captured killed or taken into slavery by Indian renegades, checked one of the boxes of the United States census form White Black or  Indian, did she know some would read this as raceism?

 

Carved page 319: "An imagined pure Spanish American bloodline seems to surface in the Southwest when individuals or events threaten the veracity of their so-called limpieza de sangre (racial purity) ."

OD This term should be translated "Cleansed Blood" (just  as limpieza étnica means ethnic cleansing) only used in the 15th century for Jewish converts who after three generations as Catholics or by a gift of the King were to be considered "Old Christians" free of heresy. Only "Old Christians" (True Catholics) were aloud to come to the New World, enter religious orders, or orders of knighthood. Juan de Oñate’s limpieza de sangre showed Old Christian-Converso-Jewish heritage. http://pages.prodigy.net/bluemountain1/lineage1.html

OD It should not be confused with "blood quantum" (degree of "blood") the origin of this concept started in 1705 when the colony of Virginia adopted a series of laws which denied civil rights to any "negro, mulatto, or Indian". “The Indians have allowed this degree of blood to decide who can be a tribal member.” CL

Carved p.321 Until recently recorded histories of the Pueblo Revolt have come from a Spanish vantage that ignores other voices or perspectives. Pueblo historians have begun publishing narratives that, until now, their communities have passed down orally.19

 OD The author freely uses Spanish sources when it serves her purpose, as do most Indian authors.

OD The Pueblos have not been shown to have an oral tradition, a tradition of passing down an unbroken chain of inportent events. No epics like that of El Cid or the Iliad and the Odyssey have emerged. When the Spanish left so did history. As late as 2006 the pueblo historians gave no indication of knowing  when Popé was born what his christian name was who his parents were, when, where or how he died. When Acoma was trying to stop the Quatrocentenario sculpture, one story changed three times to make it more compeling.

OD The Indians are fortunate in that the Spanish recorded Indian culture ledgends and how they battled the Spanish, also the Indian names for flora, fana, geography, appearance, and religion.

The Indians give their views in 1681, found on The New Mexican Hispanic Culture Preservation League web site http://nmhcpl.org/uploads/Bartolom__de_Ojeda.pdf

from Kiva, Cross, and Crown by John Kessell p.26-27.and http://nmhcpl.org/uploads/An_Indian_View_of_Pop_.pdf

Revolt of the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Otermín's attempted reconquest, 1680-1682; introduction and annotations by Charles Wilson Hackett ... translations of original documents by Charmion Clair Shelby, PH. D. Albuquerque, The University of New Mexico Press, 1942.

OD According to Cushing, Zuni legend today still recounts the death of Stephen. "It is to be believed that a long time ago, when roofs lay over the walls of Kyd-ki-me, when smoke hung over the house-tops, then the Black Mexicans came from their abodes in Everlasting Summerland. . . . Then and thus was killed by our ancients,, right where the stone stands down by the arroyo of Kyà-ki-me, one of the Black Mexicans, a large man, with chilli lips. . . . Then the rest ran away, chased by our grandfathers, and went back toward their own country in the Land of Everlasting Summer." This is poetic, but Stephen was killed at Hàwikuh, not at Kyà-ki-me, as we are told categorically by Jaramillo who was with Coronado in Cíbola. Folklore is not always good history. p.35

THE LEADING FACTS OF NEW MEXICAN HISTORY VOL. I  Ralph Emerson Twitchell, The Torch Press, Cedar Rapids, Iowa

 

Carved p.321 don Francisco Vàzquez de Coronado, who came looking for riches in 1540.

OD In the letter sending Coronado to New Mexico I see the king alowing the natives to become subjects and teaching them the Catholic faith but is there any mention of riches?

The King

 By means of letters from don Antonio de Mendoza, our viceroy in Nueva Espana, I have been aware that, in our name, he sent you as captain general of certain people for the conquest and settlement of the land discovered by fray Marcos de Niza.ll This pleases us because we expect that with your going Our Lord will be highly served and our royal kingdom augmented. And also that through your excellent efforts you will place the natives of that provincia under our sway and dominion and will bring them into knowledge of our Holy Catholic Faith. Thus, we commission you to bend your efforts toward that, with sound judgment and good order, in the process adhering to the laws and decrees we have issued and any directive our viceroy may have given you. You are to inform us of what you accomplish.

We have sent [a dispatch] ordering our viceroy to look assiduously after your jurisdiction during your absence and to provide what in his view suits the service of God, Our Lord, and of ourselves."

In Madrid, the 11th day of June one thousand five hundred and forty. Fray García, Cardinal of Spain, by order of His Majesty, governor in his name, Juan de Sàmano13 Reconciled with the original14

{rubric} Antonio de Turcios {rubric}

  Copy of a letter from His Majesty for the governor Francisco Vàzquez de Coronado, my lord.

DOCUMENTS OF THE CORONADO EXPEDITION, 1539-1542 Richard and Shirley Flint Southern Methodist University Press Dallas 2005 p.116

 

OD This article tries to lay the blame for the loss of  pueblos at the hands of the Spanish settelers and not the lack of rain and Apache depradation which is only mentioned at the end. 

Carved p.323 Spanish civil and religious officials used legal-the encomienda-and extralegal means to extract goods and labor from Pueblo peoples. This system diverted resources from Native peoples living in a desert environment, making it impossible to set aside a surplus for drought years. Finally, Apache incursions further weakened the Pueblos .23

 

The Benavidez Memorial of 1630 tells a diferent story.

  The beginning which the founding and pueblo of Sivi­lleta had, it is well that Your Majesty know. It was de­populated by wars with other nations, which burned it, and our Spaniards called it Sivilleta. Its natives wand­ered scattered over sundry hills. With them I founded that pueblo anew, and gathered there many others, where­with it is today one of the best pueblos Your Majesty has there [in New Mexico]. p,17

the pueblo of the Peccos, which contains more than two thousands souls.29 Here there is a monastery and a very splendid [luzido] temple, of distinguished workmanship and beauty, in which a Religious put very great labor and care. And although these Indians are of the Hemes nation, being here alone and strayed out of their terri­tory, they are taken for a separate nation, though it is one same tongue. It is a most frigid land, and little fertile, though it gives the necessary corn for its inhabi­tants, since they plant much. These Indians are very well trained [industriados] in all the crafts, and in their schools of reading, writing, singing, and instrument-play­ing, like the rest. p.22

Passing over this river to the westward, at seven leagues one strikes the Hemes32 nation, the which, when I came in às Custodian, had been dissipated through all the Kingdom, and already almost depopulated by famine and wars which were on the way to finish them off [los ivan acabando]. There the most part were already baptized, and had their churches, by the hard enough travail and care of sundry Religious. And so I promptly endeavored [procuri] to reclaim it and to gather it again in the same province, and placed [there] a Religious  who attended to it with care. And we have congregated it [the "nation"] in two pueblos; that is, in the [pueblo] of San Joseph, which was still standing, with a very sumptuous and beautiful church and monastery; and in the [pueblo] of San Diego, of the Congregation, which for this purpose, we founded new, bringing thither what Indians there were of that nation who were going about astray. Likewise giving them a house [we had] made, and in it food for some days, and plowed lands for their planting. For these and other like expenditures of charity we Religious are wont to barter even unto the sackcloth [sayal] which Your Majesty gives us in alms p.24

All these folk and nations were in their gentilism divided into two fac­tions, warriors and sorcerers. The warriors tried, in opposition to the sorcerers, to bring all the people under their [own] dominion and authority; and the sorcerers, with the same opposition, persuaded all that they made the rain fall and the earth yield good crops, and other things at which the warriors sneered. Wherefore there were between them continuous civil wars, so great that they killed each other [off] and laid waste whole Pueblos, wherein the Demon had his usual crop.p.30-31

Mrs. Edward E. Ayer. THE MEMORIAL OF FRAY ALONSO DE BENAVIDES 1630.  Albuquerque: Horn and Wallace, Publishers, copyright 1965,

 

OD The encomienda system allowed the one providing protection service to the people of the Pueblo- at great risk to his life and that of his sons- a yearly payment of a scarf and 2 1/2 bushels of corn. The Government required the pueblo governer to send laborers to bring in the fall harvist with required daily pay. and to maintain the mission fields and heards also for a daily wage with surplus used in time of need. The Spanish children would need to travel to one of the Pueblos to get an education as good as the Pueblo Indians recived.

 

Your Majesty supports this presidio, not with pay from your Royal coffers, but making them encomenderos  of  those pueblos, by hand of the Governor. The tribute which the Indians pay them is for each house one manta, which is one vara [33 inches] of cotton cloth (a scarf), and one fanega (2 ½ bushels) of corn each year, wherewith the needy Spaniards sustain themselves. p. 22-23, Benivedas Memorial 1630

 

Carved p.323 Gen­erally, Spanish claims to fields and pasturelands diminished the Pueblos' land base.

 OD The Indians were free to settle where they wished but would not follow the advice of the officials to move to fertile land where they could be better protected also the Pueblo use of abortive herbs did not allow the pueblos to expand.

THREE NEW MEXICO CHRONICLES- The Exposición of Don Pedro Bautista Pino 1812; the Ojeada of Lic. Antonio Barreiro
1832; and the additions by Don Jose Agustín de
Escudero, 1849, Translated, with Introduction and Notes, by H. BAILEY CARROLL, J. VILLASANA HAGGARD, THE QUIVIRA SOCIETY ALBUQUERQUE I942 p. 31 section II, and p.137

 

Carved p.323 Gov. Fernando de Arguello Caravajal hanged twenty-nine Jemez men who were allegedly in league with the Apaches.

 OD  They were also found guilty of treason.

 

Carved p.324 The Pueblos responded to the deprivations and violence with several uprisings. In late 1598, Acoma Pueblo fought back, killing twelve Spanish soldiers. Onate's soldiers retaliated by storming the Pueblo, killing hun­dreds of Acomas, and capturing and enslaving almost six hundred Acoma men, women, and children .25 He formally tried and punished many of them and decreed that all males over twenty-five years of age lose their right foot and sentenced them to twenty years of personal servitude. He also bound men and women over twelve years of age to twenty years of personal servi­tude. Onate ordered the severing of the right hands of two Hopis present during the uprising and freed them so they could spread the news about the Acomas' defeat and punishment. Franciscan missionaries also retaliated. With the support of the Spanish colony's civil leaders, the friars destroyed Acoma's kivas and important sacred ceremonial objects and publicly whipped and jailed religious leaders and their followers. The Spanish assaults on Acoma planted seeds of Pueblo resentment and rage that would sprout into rebellion in the late seventeenth century.26

26 Hammond, George P. and Agapito Rey (editors and translators). Don Juan de Oñate, Colonizer of New Mexico, 1595-1628. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1953). Volume 5, pages 428-479.

25 Joe S Sando,”The Pueblo Revolt,” in Sando and Agoyo, Po’Pay

 

This paragraph uses a Primary source information mixed with a propaganda source. The treasen comitted by Acoma was at the begaining of settelment makeing the first sentence untrue. Was it put there to make the “fought back” in the second sentence seem credible? The Prime source makes clear the unprovoked ambush by the Acomas.

 

This witness is certain that this was done treacherously and with premeditation, as they waited until the Spaniards were divided p.435

 

“killing twelve Spanish soldiers” short statements like this, hide or erase the brutality of the murders.

http://nmhcpl.org/uploads/DON_JUAN_DE_O_ATE_web.pdf

The leaders, noting that only six soldiers remained with the maese de campo, and seeing that these did not leave him, fearful lest others should return, gave the signal for attack. The Indians raised a fearful war-cry and rushed upon the Spaniards from all sides.

Tempal, … advanced with spear in hand and hurling it forward struck the unfortunate Pereira (Juan Pineiro) on the mouth, opening a terrible wound. And hardly did he see his broken teeth, before he sprang upon him and shattered the head to pieces with a club… and all seeing the skull fragments which, mingled with the brains, were scattered, bloody, on the ground, …

Diego Nunez....as he were a miserable sheep, so too they took his life away.

Pilco rushed forth… With both hands he swung a mighty war-club. Blind with fury he rushed upon the unfortunate (Martin) Bibero. The Indian crushed his entire side leaving him lifeless. At this instant a huge boulder hurled from a roof-top …struck Bibero on the head, smashing his skull to a pulp.

Popolco did attack one Costilla, a mulatto by race and so young yet he never had borne any arms, and, slashing him from side to side, his bowels poured out upon the ground.

Chontal lifted his club and brought it down on the helmet of the ensign (Rodrigo Zapata) who fell as if dead, he quickly recovered to kill his attacker.

Forced off the edge of Acoma …The first was Juan Camacho, after him Hernando de Segura , then Martin Rameirez,did hurl themselves, They were dead from a hundred thousand blows upon the rocks.

Felipe de Escalante and Sabastian Rodriguez, surrounded on all sides, assailed with spears, arrows, and clubs, and pelted with stones, they fought to the very last, dying together in a final effort against the informidable odds. The brave Luis de Araujo grappled in single combat with a tall, powerful warrior. They fought like two wolves. It was a terrible sight to see them, streaming with blood from many grievous wounds. Face to face they fought, neither giving nor taking a single foot. They fell together, perishing nobly, bathed in each other’s blood.

The fiery Qualpo siezed his heavy war bow, the arrow flew with terrific force, and striking Juan de Zaldìvar on the right thigh, pierced him through and through, mail and all. Now Pilco and his warriors, aided by Zutacapàn, Amulco, Esmicaio, Cotumbo, Tempal, and many others, renewed the attack. Three times Juan de Zaldìvar fell to the ground, only to rise again to battle. Finally, Zutacapan himself struck the brave Zaldìvar a terrible blow on the forehead. Zaldìvar fell, delivered unto that eternal sleep to which we are all doomed some day. When the Indians saw their valiant foe fall upon the ground. Again and again they struck their fallen foe, like blacksmiths who smite the hot iron, vying with one another in the force of their blows. They left Juan de Zaldìvar a shapeless mass, like the noble Anaxarco, who was ground to death by his enemies in a mighty mortar. Villagrá’s HISTORIA DE LA NUEVA MÉXICO

Villagrá, Gaspar Pérez de, d. 1620 A History of New Mexico. Translated from the Spanish by Gilberto Espinosa. Chicago Rio Grande Press, 1962

 

Carved “storming the Pueblo”

 OD Acoma as most people know is on a high mesa and can hardly be stormed.

Carved all males over twenty-five years of age lose their right foot

OD Scholars now know this comes from a miss-translation and should not be used in a scholarly article. http://nmhcpl.org/uploads/tip_of_toe.pdf

 

Carved Franciscan missionaries also retaliated.

OD This last section was not found in the source stated, was it used here for propaganda to distort the truth?

 

Carved p. 324 Farther north, in 1675 the Spanish civil authorities arrested and tried forty-seven Pueblo medicine men whom the Franciscans accused of prac­ticing witchcraft. The court convicted and hanged three; a fourth commit­ted suicide; the other forty-three were publicly whipped and then released. One of the survivors, Po'pay, retreated to Taos Pueblo, where he began or­chestrating a massive indigenous revolt against the Spaniards. 27

 

OD The primary source for this comes from Hackett, II p.289, 301. It was an Indian interpreter not the Franciscans who accused them. The ones hanged had admitted their crimes. More erasure, more propaganda?

 

Revolt of the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Otermín's attempted reconquest, 1680-1682; introduction and annotations by Charles Wilson Hackett ... translations of original documents by Charmion Clair Shelby, PH. D. Albuquerque, The University of New Mexico Press, 1942.

 

Don Juan Francisco Treviño, in the case of a punishment which, he ordered administered too forty-seven In­dian sorcerers and idolaters for having killed seven religious and three Spaniards by witchcraft. Actually, when the iniquity was uncovered, it was found that they had bewitched the reverend father preacher, Fray Andrés Durán, minister of the district of San Ildefonso, who is living to-day very infirm from the spell which they wrought upon him; and a brother of his; the wife of his said brother; and the Indian interpreter of the pueblo, who denounced them, and as soon as they rebelled they killed him, as is well known. II p.289

 

an Indian interpreter named Francisco Guiterez, who denounced the said sorcerers. Forty-seven Indians were arrested, all of the Teguas nation, four of whom, because of having declared that they had committed the witchcraft referred to, were sentenced to be hanged, both for the above crimes and for other deaths which were proved against them, II p.300

 

OD It was Sergeant Mayor Diego Lopez Sambrano who links Popé with the other sorcerers no mention is made of medicine-man.

they had come so that they might give up to them the sorcerers who were im­prisoned; that he should pardon them; and that they would make amends. Among the prisoners was one named Popé p.301

 

Carved  p.324 Po'pay united "over two dozen communities speaking six different lan­guages and sprawled out over a distance of nearly four hundred miles, from Taos at one end to the Hopi villages at the other.”29 During the uprising in August 1680, the Pueblos and their Apache allies killed over four hundred Spanish and forced some two thousand survivors back to El Paso.

 

OD The Pueblos also spoke Spanish as a common language. The Pueblos massacred mainly priests, women, and children The Spanish were able to kill over 300 Pueblo warriors in one battle at the beginning of Popé’s war.

 http://nmhcpl.org/uploads/The_St._Lawrence_Day_Massacre_Victims.pdf
  http://nmhcpl.org/uploads/An_Indian_View_of_Pop_.pdf

 

Especially encouraging was Oleda’s report of Pueblo Indian disunity. According to him, the Keresan-speaking peoples of Zia, Santa Ana, San Felipe, Cochiti, and Santo Domingo, along with the Jemez, Taos, and Pecos, were waging continuous warfare against the Tewa pueblos and Picuris. The Acomas had split, one faction still living atop their rocky eminence and the other at Laguna, where immigrants from Zia and Santa Ana had joined them. This Laguna aggregation warred against the other Acoma faction and Zia. Zunis and Hopis were also at war.

Bands of Apaches made peace with some pueblos and raided others whenever they could. The Utes had been hostile since 1680 to all the up risen Pueblo Indians, punishing especially Taos, Picuris, the Tewa pueblos, and Jemez. The Tewas and Picuris in 1688 had relieved Luis Tupatú of command and reelected Popé, but they’ were the only ones who obeyed him. Bartolomé de Ojeda also related in detail how seven of the Franciscan missionaries had met their deaths in 1680. from Kiva, Cross, and Crown by John Kessell p.26-27.

 

Carved  p.324 Although the Spanish later returned under don Diego de Vargas in 1692, the revolt had humbled them and led to political and cultural concessions that allowed for a more peaceful coexistence with the Pueblos.

 

OD The pardoning of the Pueblos

 

From the King

 I had given of my having pardoned them and of their obedience which was the cause of said pardon, all his displeasure had vanished and he would call them again his chldren, and for that reason be had sent many priests in order that they might be Christians as they were, and that likewise he sent me with the soldiers they saw for the purpose of defending them against their enemies; that I came not to ask anything of them, but only for two things; that they should be Christians as they ought, hearing mass and saying their prayers, and their sons and women attending to the catechisms as the Spaniards did; and the second was that they might be safe from the Apaches and friendly with all, and that this was my sole object in coming, and not to ask or take away anything; p.390

 

As a result of this war, as we have seen, many pueblos were aban­doned and a great many of the Indians lost their lives, mainly from sickness and exposure. Others left their old villages and joined the Apaches and Navajós, so that during this year there was a great diminution of the native population. p.412

 

THE LEADING FACTS OF NEW MEXICAN HISTORY VOL. I  Ralph Emerson Twitchell, The Torch Press, Cedar Rapids, Iowa

 

Carved p.328 he "tortured and killed 20 priests, and murdered countless numbers of women and children." While the Pueblo Revolt to which Arellano refers also took place four centuries ago,:

OD The editors should have corrected this mistake, the date was 1860.

 

Carved  p.335 than their variant of Roman Catholicism."61

The New Mexico Roman Catholics are the same as those in Rome.

 

The author makes the basic claim that the people who want primary source histories like

Gaspar Pérez deVillagrá’s HISTORIA DE LA NUEVA MÉXICO, 1610 Published  by the University of New Mexico Press 1992, and

 Revolt of the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Otermín's attempted reconquest, 1680-1682; introduction and annotations by Charles Wilson Hackett ... translations of original documents by Charmion Clair Shelby, PH. D. Albuquerque, The University of New Mexico Press, 1942.

be available to New Mexican students, are “engaging in a strategy of erasure and minimization.”

 

Carved p,330 Hispanics were not the only ones engaging in a strategy of erasure and minimization. Some Anglo politicians also judged Po'pay and his contribu­tions to New Mexico as unworthy of historical acknowledgment.

OD It is understandable that the Pueblos would want to change history by making Popé into Po’Pay the restorer of Pueblo culture and erase Popé the sorcerer despot who engaged in ethnic cleansing ridding New Mexico of its catholic population (Indian and Spanish), God and his priests. but this would be propaganda not history.

 

 Carved  p.336 Pueblo historian Joe S. Sando, Po'pay "rep­resents a concept far more significant than just one historical figure.

 

Carved  p.335 New Mexico state historian Dr. Estevan Rael-Gàlvez spoke about the promise that the past holds in the way the public chooses to remember history.

 

Carved  p.335 they must reflect. This exercise allows them to rejuvenate contemporary traditions, even to reinvent them, something Rael-Gàlvez claimed that people have always done. Indeed, he reminded people that history is not a material piece under glass in a museum but something that lives and adapts to contempo­rary events. The Pueblos' remembrance of Po'pay and the revolt is an ex­ample of how interpretation can better reflect diverse perspectives and experiences

 

How soon can we expect the New Mexico Historical Review to change its name to the New Mexico Review of Interpretive History and Propaganda?

  Orae Dominguez © 2007 

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